“Party Wall” has 4 different legal senses

Party Wall Surveyor Bruce Spenser MSc MCIOB

Party Wall may be used in 4 different legal senses

“party fence wall” means a wall (not being part of a building) which stands on lands of different owners and is used or constructed to be used for separating such adjoining lands, but does not include a wall constructed on the land of one owner the artificially formed support of which projects into the land of another owner;

“party structure” means a party wall and also a floor partition or other structure separating buildings or parts of buildings approached solely by separate staircases or separate entrances;

“party wall” means—

(a)a wall which forms part of a building and stands on lands of different owners to a greater extent than the projection of any artificially formed support on which the wall rests; and

(b)so much of a wall not being a wall referred to in paragraph (a) above as separates buildings belonging to different owners

Type A & B Party Walls

Type A & B Party Wall

Beware the loss of your property rights by incompetent Party Wall Surveyors incorrectly advising what is a Type B Party Wall

A type B Party Wall is a wall (or part of a wall) which is legally owned by two owners.

A wall which has been enclosed upon without the benefit of an award, a legally binding agreement, adverse possession or statute is not a Part B Party Wall and the person who is enclosing is a trespassing

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Type B Party Wall

Party Wall Surveyor Bruce Spenser MSc MCIOB

Type B Party Wall

Beware the loss of your property rights by  incompetent Party Wall Surveyors – The Type B Party Wall

A common mistake made by incompetent Party Wall Surveyors is to determine that the Building Owner’s wall, which has been enclosed upon in the following circumstances, is a Type B Party Wall:

  • No award is in place to allow the enclosure
  • No legal documents are in place to allow the enclosure

further

  • The Party Wall Act suspends common law (Roadrunner – LJ Chadwick [2004])
  • The Land Registration Act 2002 removed, “squatter’s rights” and Adverse possession and the adjoining owner has not applied to be registered as proprietor in place of the registered proprietor

When in fact the owner enclosing has no rights whatsoever to the wall they have enclosed upon, they are trespassers

Nb:

Section 20 of the Act – Interpretation

A type B party Wall is a wall which stands entirely upon the land of one owner and has been enclosed upon

 “party wall” means—

(a)a wall which forms part of a building and stands on lands of different owners to a greater extent than the projection of any artificially formed support on which the wall rests; and

(b)so much of a wall not being a wall referred to in paragraph (a) above as separates buildings belonging to different owners

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Options available to Adjoining Owners

Party Wall Surveyor Bruce Spenser MSc MCIOB

Options available to an Adjoining Owner

The options available to an Adjoining Owner are dependent on the circumstances prevailing, let us explore them in turn:

  • The Adjoining Owner receives a letter from a surveyor when the Building Owner has not served notices
    • This is known as coffin chasing or cold calling and is an unethical practice.  If the letter is from a Chartered Professional make a complaint to their professional body.  Regardless of who the letter is from, put it in the bin and have no further truck with these people.

  • The Adjoining Owner is advised by planning of an application or its progress
    • This is standard regulatory procedure required by Planning legislation, it is outside the remit of the Party Wall Act and you should therefore not contact a Party Wall Surveyor

  • The Adjoining Owner receives notices from the Building Owner (or a surveyor who is authorised to serve them)

     

    • The Adjoining Owner has four choices:
      • To appoint their own surveyor –  Bruce would recommend only a Chartered Building Consultancy or a Chartered Engineer – both have the necessary training, education and experience to carry out the requirements of the act
      • To agree the Building Owner’s Surveyor as the Agreed Surveyor – Bruce would recommend this course of action if the Building Owner’s surveyor is a Chartered Building Consultancy or a Chartered Engineer – both have the necessary training, education and experience to carry out the requirements of the act
      • To do nothing – The Building Owner will, in due course, serve a requirement to appoint notice and then the Adjoining Owner has the two choices listed above.
      • To allow the Building Owner’s works to go forward without a dispute – In this case a dispute under the act would not arise – Bruce would not recommend this course of action unless the Adjoining Owner knew exactly what they were doing and the ramifications of their choice.

  • The choice exercised will be dependent on the Adjoining Owner’s psychological make up and can not therefore be advised upon by a surveyor and it would be unethical of a surveyor to attempt to persuade an adjoining owner to choose them.

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The Law, The Party Wall Surveyor & The Third Surveyor

Party Wall Surveyor Bruce Spenser MSc MCIOB

Party Wall Law

if a Party Wall Surveyor can not understand, interpret, advise on and apply the law they are unfit for purpose

English and Welsh Law

The law can be classified and divided as follows:

LAW

Public

Private

Criminal

Contract

Administrative

Tort

Constitutional

Property

Public law affects everyone

  • Constitutional Law determines who will govern
  • Administrative Law determines the jurisdiction of the government
  • Criminal Law determines what people can and cannot do (theft, violence, property etc)
  • Private law governs contracts between parties to an agreement or accidental damage to property or injury to a person (tort).

Public and private law can overlap. Ie A criminal committing a crime may beat some up which will involve the police (the state) and the beat up person claiming compensation (tort of negligence) for the injury, loss and damage caused.

Problems have evolved re Children and family law and the division into public (state) and private law (individuals)  and special procedures deal with families.

Criminal law is entirely separated from all other types of law (civil actions) and are dealt with in separate courts.  Special procedure are in place for children.  Criminal concern the public and the police and the ideal is to prevent re-offending by punishment (operant conditioning).  It is essential, because the state punishes and restricts freedom that the trial rules are strict to preserve confidence and abeyance of and in the system and the standard of proof is “beyond reasonable doubt”.

Civil law is between individuals and compensates the victim via damages by the transgressor – the scales of justice.  It may be by agreement of the parties.  The burden of proof rests upon the person complaining of damage or injury and the standard of proof is expressed as “on the balance of probabilities”.

In a civil action the parties are two individuals in dispute.  The injured party making the allegation is called the claimant (plaintiff) who sues the defendant (who the claimant claims has done him wrong).  If the wrong is proved the correction of the wrong is by damages  (which places the claimant in the position they were before the wrong was done).  The case is listed by the claimant’s name first ie claimant v defendant.  If the defendant loses they may appeal and they are then knows as the appellant and the original claimant as the respondent.  A judge hears the original case, a number of judges the appeal.

Criminal cases are prosecuted by the relevant department of state (the crown); crown prosecution services, customs and excise, local council (or extremely rarely privately).  The case is listed as R v defendant.  The most serious cases will be prosecuted by the DPP.  The standard cases go before the beak; The Magistrates court (lay justices bench) who will be advised by the clerk (who will be legally qualified, similar to the army admin clerk advising the officer prosecuting by 252 the unfortunate soldier), the more serious cases are heard by a judge and 12 good men/women true (the jury).  The sanction applied against guilty parties will be a punishing, deterring or rehabilitating sentence.  The victim may be called as a witness but has no part in the prosecution and may not settle the matter with the defendant.  Children (no legal capacity) are dealt with under different procedures by the youth court which sits in private with specially trained magistrates who impose, only restrictive, punishments. 

 LAW SOURCES;  Case Law (Common Law), Legislation

After the conquest (1066) William, in order to control the conquered, gave.  One thing he gave was justice;  he gave jurisdiction to judges to travel around the country who would apply the best customs from within the country and apply them for all as a common law for everyone.  Common/case law was built up incrementally (case by case) over the centuries by reference to precedent and they are synonymous and interchangeable.  The common law cases are supplemented (then and now) by parliament (then the King or Queen in council) by legislation known as statute (acts of parliament).  Case law was predominant until the industrial and agricultural revolutions (mid 18th century) when statutes surpassed them but both are interpreted and enforced through the courts (by precedent if it is there).

The system of precedent

Judges interpret the by the system of precedents. 

An inferior court is bound to follow the legal principles established previously by a superior court in a similar case.

  • Overruling – Case law may be overruled by statute. Superior courts may overrule the decisions of courts that are inferior to them.
  • Distinguishing – This is the main way in which the doctrine of precedent remain flexible. Cases are distinguished on the facts so that the inferior court does not need to follow a decision of the superior court after all.

For the system of precedent to operate effectively:

  • Requires a good system of law reporting. Important decisions must be published consistently and accurately. In particular the judgement must be set out so we know what the judges actually said.
    • ratio decidendi (reason for deciding) is the part of the judgement that may apply to later cases and is said to be binding.
    • obiter dicta Any matters which are not part of the reasons for deciding the case (things said by the way) and are only persuasive.
  • Requires a clear hierarchy of courts to know which is an inferior court and which is a superior court.

Legislation; Statute, Delegated legislation,

Legislation is by parliament who may make, amend or repeal a law on any subject at any time. A judge may not alter case law unless a certain sets of circumstance upon which the principle of law is based comes before the court – the court may not overrule or ignore a statute (see Statutory Interpretation & the Human Rights Act 1998)

Statute is authorised, created and repealed by Parliament, the commons, the lords and royal assent.  A statute can authorise jurisdiction, decisions and detailed rules etc by delegated Legislation which must be published within a statutory instrument.

The human rights act provided that a statute must be interpreted to comply with the provisions of the European Human Rights Act which can mean that case law and statutes becomes non-effective or no longer mean what they were meant to mean. This could mean that the court must go against previous decisions of the English courts and make the statute mean something which it was not designed to mean – they must read down the statute. If the words of the statute are so unambiguous that they cannot be made to comply with the ECHR, the court must still apply the statute but can declare it “incompatible”. The statute will remain valid until parliament decides to change it, however. The position with delegated legislation is different, because the HRA 1998 allows a court to rule a statutory instrument invalid if it does not comply with the ECHR.

The Institutions of the EU

The European Parliament was introduced to stop the perception of an unaccountable bureaucracy in 1978.  It has elected representatives from the countries which make up the EEC.  It has no legislative power but can legislate on certain matters in conjunction with the Council of Ministers, power given by Maastricht Treaty. Its is considered by the EEC to be  supervisory and advisory and can censure the commission and debate EU proposals and put written questions to the Commission and Council of Ministers. The Commission and Council of Ministers must consult the Parliament but they do not have to heed the Parliament’s report of opinion.

The Commission consists of 13 commissioners and staff of over 6000. It is the “civil service” of the EU. It is the guardian to the Community Treaties, it is the executive agency of the Community, and it co-ordinates Community policy by preparing community legislation for the Parliament to consider and the Council of Ministers to pass.

The Council of Ministers consists of one minister form each state. When the ministers are not present their work is done by a Committee of Permanent Representatives (COREPER). The Council has the power to pass secondary legislation.

The European court of Justice consists of one judge, who holds office for 6 years, from each member state and each judge requires the unanimous vote of the governments of the counties. The 6 years is renewable. Judges are selected either by having held high judicial office in their own country or by being universally recognised as a legal expert. The court’s president is elected by all the judges by secret ballot for a 3 year renewable period. In addition there are 6 Advocates General whose function is to assist the court by presenting arguments as unbiased spokesmen. Advocates General require the same qualifications as judges and are appointed for a 6 year period which is renewable by a unanimous vote of the Council.  Its jurisdiction is:

  • to settle disputes between Member States,
  • to deal with proceedings brought by the Commission against Member States,
  • to deal with disputes between the Institutions, and
  • to make rulings on points of law that are brought before it for interpretation by the Institutions, Member States or individuals within Member States.

European Union Law as a Source of UK Law

EU Law is made up of three parts and all three parts are both directly and indirectly sources of English law. The three parts are:

  • the Treaties which are known as Primary legislation;
  • the Regulations, Directives and Decisions which are known as secondary legislation;
  • the Decisions and Preliminary Rulings of the European Court of Justice.

Primary Legislation – The Treaties – When the UK joined the EU it became bound by the terms of the Treaties already made and agreed to be bound by all treaties made in the future while a Member State.

The European Communities Act 1972 s 2 states “all such rights powers liabilities obligations and restrictions… created by or arising under the Treaties … shall be recognised and available in law, and shall be enforced, allowed and followed accordingly”  This has effect to make the Treaties a source of law. As Lord Denning said “when we come into matters with a European element the Treaty is like and incoming tide. It flows into the estuaries and up the rivers. It cannot be held back. Parliament has decreed that the Treaty is henceforward to be a part of our law. It is equal in force to any statute.”

Secondary Legislation – The Commission prepares and drafts legislation, the Parliament considers it and expresses an opinion and in some instances co decides and the Council of ministers the passes the legislation. There are three kinds of secondary legislation:

Regulations – which apply to all Member States and have immediate effect. They do not require legislation by the individual Parliaments of each Member State and regulations are therefore called self-executing.

 Directives which are binding on all Member States, which require legislation by the individual state to put them into effect. The Directive set out a goal which all Member States are to reach by a certain time.

 Decisions which only apply to certain Member States, agencies, companies, or individuals to whom they are addressed. They have immediate effect and no further legislation is required.

Legislation may be made by one of the following procedures which are dependent on the legislation proposed:

  • The Council may legislate without consultation with the Parliament. Although the treaty states that decisions will be made by simple majority it goes on the provide that in most cases qualified majority is used in relation to most legislation with each state receiving a certain number of votes in accordance with its population. In a few cases a unanimous vote is required.
  • Consultation Procedure: The Council must consult the Parliament before legislating, the parliament’s opinion must be taken into account but is not binding on the Council.
  • Co-operation Procedure: The Council must consult with the Parliament who are able to make amendments to the proposed legislation. If the Council does not agree with the amendment and a compromise amendment cannot be found then the Council can only pass the legislation on a unanimous vote.
  • The Co-decision Procedure: The Council must consult with the Parliament who are able to make amendments to the proposed legislation. If the Council does not agree with the amendment a conciliation committee is formed of equal numbers of the Council and Parliament. If they cannot agree a joint text then the measure fails.

This European Court becomes a source of law by  giving Preliminary Rulings on points of European Law found in the Treaties or Regulations, Directives or Decisions and.deciding disputes between:

  • Member States;
  • the Commission and Member States;
  • one Institution of the Community and another;

Any court in a Member State from which there is no appeal (a court of last resort) must suspend the case it is dealing with and refer it to the European Court if the case turns upon a question of interpretation of one of the Articles of the Treaty or measure of secondary legislation.

However in (Case 283/81) CILFIT Srl the European Court held that it is not necessary to do so if:

  • the question of European Law is irrelevant to the outcome of the case;
  • the provision has already been interpreted by the Court;
  • the correct application is so obvious as to leave no room for doubt (the doctrine of acte claire).

After the European Court has given a ruling on the point of law then the matter is returned to the national court who will finish the hearing reach a decision based on the ruling.

All other courts may request a preliminary ruling.

Application of Community Law

The European Court has developed a number of principles to protect the rights given to individuals by Community Law.

Direct Effect of Legislation

The Treaty articles and, under Article 189 of the Treaty, Regulations are directly applicable in all Member States and have direct effect provided they are “unconditional and sufficiently precise” Case 148/78 Publico Ministero v Ratti [1979] ECR 1629 at p. 1642.

Even Directives may have direct effect if they, also, are “unconditional and sufficiently precise”.

A measure will not be unconditional if it is subject to “judicial control” Case 41/74 Van Duyn v Home Office [1974] ECR 1337 p.1347. This means that the measure gives to an independent body such as the court or government of a Member State an element of discretion. In the above case it was held that paragraph 3 of Article 84 relating to free movement of workers did not have direct effect because it was “subject to limitations justified on grounds of public policy, public security, or public health”.

If a Member State fails to fulfil an obligation that has direct effect the Commission or another Member State may enforce the measure by bringing an action against that Member State under Articles 169 or 170. However this action is slow and, until Article 171 was amended at Maastricht to allow the Court to impose a financial penalty, no sanctions could be imposed for the Member State’s failure to comply with the judgement requiring the Member State to fulfil its obligations. It also offered no remedy to individuals who had suffered as a result of the Member State’s failure to comply.

Therefore an alternative remedy has been developed by the European Court through the principle of direct effect. In Case 26/62 Van Gend en Loos v Nederlandse Administraties der Belastingen [1963] ECR 1 the European Court stated that Community Law is a “new legal order” and that certain provisions are directly effective in each of the member states creating “individual rights which national courts must protect”. This enables individuals to enforce Community Law directly in the courts of their own Member States in order to obtain a remedy, such as damages, where the individual has suffered as a result of a Member State failing to implement Community Law either at all or properly.

Individuals are able to rely on the direct effect of Treaty provisions and regulations against other individuals (horizontal effect) as well as against Member States (vertical effect).

However it was held in Case 152/84 Marshall v Southampton and South-West Hampshire Area Health Authority [1986] ECR 723 that directives that have direct effect and which have not been implemented may only be enforced against Member States (vertical effect) and not against individuals.

Directives do not become an obligation enforceable against an individual within a State until they become a part of the law of that State. In Case 208/90 Emmot v Minister for Social Welfare and the AG [1991] ECR 1000 time limits referred to in a directive that has direct effect will not start to run until the directive has been implemented and incorporated into the national law of the Member State since a person cannot be presumed to know the law until it has become a part of the law of that Member State. However an action may lie against the Member State or a public body which was obliged to implement that directive but failed to do so.

In Foster v British Gas plc a public body was held to include a nationalised industry (important for utility companies). The provisions of a Directive may be invoked against organisations of bodies which were subject to the authority or the control of the state or had special powers beyond those which result from the normal rules applicable to relations between individuals.

Indirect Effect of Legislation

In Van Colson it was held that under Article 5 the authorities of all Member States including the courts must ensure fulfilment of the obligations of the Treaty and measures resulting from action taken by the Institutions of the Community. In the absence of evidence that the national parliament did not intend to comply with its EU obligations a court should strive to construe the domestic law to comply with a directive that has not been implemented or fully implemented, if necessary filling gaps and resolving ambiguities in order to achieve a result compatible with Community Law. Therefore “it is for the national court to interpret and apply the legislation adopted for the implementation of the directive in conformity with the requirements of Community Law in so far as it was given discretion to do so under national law”. This will include awarding damages where the individual has suffered harm as a result of the non-implementation.

The general requirement that the domestic law of a state be interpreted to comply with EU law is known as “indirect effect”. 

III – THE COURTS

Each court in the system is described below. The decision of a court can often be appealed to the next highest court in the hierarchy. There are some exceptions, but the hierarchy for appeals is usually as follows :

Civil cases

Criminal cases

Family cases

House of Lords

House of Lords

House of Lords

Court of Appeal (Civil Div)

Court of Appeal (Criminal Div)

Court of Appeal (Civil Div)

High Court or County Court

Crown Court

High Court (Family Div)

 

Magistrates Court

County Court

 

 

Magistrates (Family Proceedings) Court

NOTE : cases will start in either the High Court or the County Court, depending on the value of the claim. Some types of case in the County Court can be appealed to the appropriate division of the High Court, but claims in contract or tort go straight to the Court of Appeal.

NOTE : every offence is classified as “summary” (must be dealt with in the Magistrates Court); “indictable” (must be transferred to the Crown Court); or “triable either way” (can be transferred if serious or the defendant so elects). Appeals on a point of law can be heard by the High Court (Queens Bench Div) by “case stated”

NOTE : in cases concerning children in particular, the hearing can be transferred to whichever court is the most appropriate, according to the complexity or seriousness of the case.

 

  1. European Court

Only deals with points of European Law. Its decisions are binding on all courts under the European Communities Act 1972.

  1. European Court of Human Rights

Deals with appeals when there is no other possible appeal to an English/Welsh court an there is an issue relating to the ECHR. Under the HRA 1998, all courts in E&W must follow decisions of the ECtHR on such points.

  1. House of Lords

Only deals with appeals on points of law and on matters of public importance. Its decisions are binding on all English courts but it does not bind itself. It is made up of judges who have been ennobled for this purpose (“Law Lords”). When sitting as the Privy Council it hears appeals from some former colonies, and then its decisions are only persuasive precedents.

  1. Court of Appeal

Cases are usually heard by three Lords Justices of Appeal (Smith LJ) sitting in London (the Royal Courts of Justice in The Strand). The Civil Division deals with appeals from the civil courts, and is headed by the Master of the Rolls. The Criminal Division hears appeals from the criminal courts and is headed by the Lord Chief Justice.

  1. High Court

Hears the more serious civil cases and, although based in London, will also sit in large provincial cities. There are three divisions of the High Court: The Family Division and the Chancery Division which only hear civil matters; and the Queen’s Bench Division which hears both civil and criminal matters. The three divisions may sit either as courts of first instance (hearing a case for the first time) with a single judge; or as a Divisional Court (sitting as a court of appeal in London), with two or three judges presiding. Decisions of a single High Court judge are weak precedents, but decisions of a Divisional Court are much more important. High Court judges are called “Mr/Mrs Justice Smith” (shortened to “Smith J” in law reports).

  1. County Court

Hears relatively small civil cases. It is situated locally in most towns of any size and cases are heard by a single “circuit judge” (Judge Smith). Can hear family cases. 

  1. Crown Court

A criminal court that hears serious criminal cases. They are situated in larger towns and cities and classified in “tiers” according to the degree of seriousness of the cases they can deal with. Cases are usually heard by a circuit judge but very serious cases (e.g., murder trials in a tier 1 Crown Court) will be heard by a High Court judge.

  1. Magistrates Courts

Situated locally in most towns. As a criminal court it deals with all minor cases and vets cases before they go to the Crown Court, to ensure that there is sufficient evidence for the case to be heard. Cases are usually heard by two or three lay (i.e., not legally qualified) magistrates, but some courts in large cities are staffed by one stipendiary magistrate (District Judge) who is a qualified lawyer (i.e., a solicitor or barrister). As a “family proceedings court” it can deal with most family matters except divorces and disputes over property.

Tribunals

These hear particular kinds of cases which are governed by technical rules and/or require specialist knowledge to deal with them. E.g. Industrial Tribunals (unfair dismissal and other employment matters); Rent Assessment Committees; Mental Health tribunals (release from compulsory detention in a mental institution etc)

The Legal Profession

The parties in either a criminal or civil case are represented out of court by a solicitor. S/he is the office lawyer and will deal with the client initially. If the case is to go to the magistrates court or the county court the solicitor may still continue to deal with the matter. S/he may pass it to a barrister, however and must do so if the case goes to trial in the High Court or Crown Court (with some exceptions). Barristers are the court room lawyers who tend to be more specialised, although there are now many solicitors who are equally specialised and as a result the monopoly that the Bar had in the courts is being eroded. Solicitors and barristers have the same basic qualifications – a law degree followed by a specialised vocational course and examination. Trainee solicitors must spend two years “apprenticed” to a qualified solicitor before being admitted to the role of solicitors. Trainee barristers are qualified as soon as they pass their vocational examination, but must spend six months as an apprentice (“pupil”) before being allowed to appear in court, and one year before being allowed to practice on their own. It is therefore quicker and easier to qualify as a barrister than as a solicitor

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Interpretation & Spirit of the Party Wall Act

Party Wall Surveyor Bruce Spenser MSc MCIOB

Party Wall act Interpretation

Party Wall Surveyors must interpret the act via its wording, case law, section 20; interpretation and its spirit

The spirit of the act is contained within its second reading in the house of Lords https://api.parliament.uk/historic-hansard/lords/1996/jan/31/party-wall-bill-hl

The spirit of the act is as follows:

  • Extend from London to England and Wales
  • Jurisdiction to Party Wall Surveyors
  • To avoid courts
  • not affect
    • title
    • common law rights of support
    • non party walls
    • statute
    • easements
  • A safety net not a fiery hoop and can not deal with:
    • dogs
    • children
    • trees
    • personal animosity
  • A procedure to be followed
  • A schedule of Conditions is triggered and required
  • Party Wall Surveyors’s duty is quasi-arbitral
  • not a licence to charge excessive fees – prior agreement on charges
  • Voluntary – no summary enforcement
  • County court to be used when owners fail in their voluntary duty
  • Appealed award is strong prima facie evidence of its reasonableness
  • failsafe mechanism of dispute procedures
  • to assume agreement
  • cost effective and cheapest option other than more expensive options, freer from risk than litigation
  • safeguards and rights to owners
  • The Term Surveyor
    • The term “surveyor” means anybody acting on behalf of the building owner and adjoining owner or appointed to settle disputes. It could be an architect or solicitor. It could even be a lay person with no technical qualifications.
    • “surveyor” means a competent or a relevant professional person. However, it does not say that in the Bill. I find that very surprising when we think of the seriousness of the subject. The Bill simply refers to a “person”. That person could be either competent or incompetent
    • The definition of a surveyor has been given a certain amount of thought. The difficulty is to provide a test of competence in the Bill. I particularly note what the Minister said about the advantages of the provision being open. I am certainly prepared to consider the matter again. However, it raises problems which may not be easily overcome.
    • What is a Party Wall Surveyor, how to appoint them and the importance of due diligence
  • Dovetails in Access to Neighbouring Land Act.
  • create business like relations between neighbours

Section 20 Interpretation.

In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires, the following expressions have the meanings hereby respectively assigned to them—

  • adjoining owner” and “adjoining occupier” respectively mean any owner and any occupier of land, buildings, storeys or rooms adjoining those of the building owner and for the purposes only of section 6 within the distances specified in that section;
  • appointing officer” means the person appointed under this Act by the local authority to make such appointments as are required under section 10(8);
  • “building owner” means an owner of land who is desirous of exercising rights under this Act;
  • “foundation”, in relation to a wall, means the solid ground or artificially formed support resting on solid ground on which the wall rests;
  • “owner” includes—(a)a person in receipt of, or entitled to receive, the whole or part of the rents or profits of land;(b)a person in possession of land, otherwise than as a mortgagee or as a tenant from year to year or for a lesser term or as a tenant at will;(c)a purchaser of an interest in land under a contract for purchase or under an agreement for a lease, otherwise than under an agreement for a tenancy from year to year or for a lesser term;
  • party fence wall” means a wall (not being part of a building) which stands on lands of different owners and is used or constructed to be used for separating such adjoining lands, but does not include a wall constructed on the land of one owner the artificially formed support of which projects into the land of another owner;
  • party structure” means a party wall and also a floor partition or other structure separating buildings or parts of buildings approached solely by separate staircases or separate entrances;
  • party wall” means—(a)a wall which forms part of a building and stands on lands of different owners to a greater extent than the projection of any artificially formed support on which the wall rests; and(b)so much of a wall not being a wall referred to in paragraph (a) above as separates buildings belonging to different owners;
  • “special foundations” means foundations in which an assemblage of beams or rods is employed for the purpose of distributing any load; and
  • surveyor” means any person not being a party to the matter appointed or selected under section 10 to determine disputes in accordance with the procedures set out in this Act.

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What is a Party Wall

Party Wall Surveyor Bruce Spenser MSc MCIOB

What is a Party Wall?

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9cF1zblOOGE

The government has produced a booklet

Section 20 of the act interprets

and of course there is very much case law the original and most famous being Watson v Gray (1880) 

but of course you also have Bruce’s Cyclopedia of Party Walls – The Type A & B Party Wall

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Party Wall Act Case Law

Party Wall Surveyor Bruce Spenser MSc MCIOB

Party Wall Case Law

Case Law – The Party Wall Act came into being in 1996; however it stands on the shoulders of over a hundred years of Party Wall case law and statute.  Case law is the interpretation of statute by reference to precedent.  The case law maker, the modern judge is required not to immerse himself in pedantry but to look to the common sense meaning of the work, sentence, paragraph etc  (the plain meaning rule) if this is not clear the judge will next look at the meaning of the legislature.  It is very clear that the legislature and the courts intend that simple common sense should apply to the act and it be administered by reasonable people.  Some common case law is listed below:

Use the Party Wall Act – do not attempt to slyly circumnavigate it – Udal v Dutton 2007 – it is there to provide a mechanism by which agreements can be reached and disputes settled ideally without expensive, time consuming and stressful court action (minimum of £15k) -“there are too many calamitous neighbor disputes in the Courts.Greater use should be made of the services of local mediators, who have specialist legal and surveying skills and are experienced in alternative dispute resolution. At attempt at mediation should be made right at the beginning of a dispute and certainly well before things turn nasty and become expensive. By time neighbors get to Court it is often far too late for the Court based ADR and mediation schemes to have much impact. Litigation hardens attitudes. Costs become an additional aggravating issue. Almost by its own momentum the case that cried out for compromise moves onward and upwards to a conclusion that is disastrous for one of the parties or possibly both.The extreme acrimony between these neighbors is nothing new” – Lord Justice Murray – Bradford and Bradford v James and others – 2008

if an owner is in breach of a party wall award the other owner is prima facie entitled to protect their interests by seeking and injunction – Chliaifchtein v Wainbridge

It is common ground that an action for breach of statutory duty is not actionable per se, but only upon the occurrence of damage Bridgland v Earlsmead

Parties may contractually opt out of the 1996 Dillard v Commercial Property Holding

Correct Method of appeal against Party Wall Awards and decisions of Party Wall Surveyors – Zissis v Lukomski & Carter (2006) – Part 52 is the correct method of appeal

Noise, dust, dirt etc. whilst carrying out works subject to the Party Wall Act – The reasonableness of such – Andrea v Selfridge (1938) – Be reasonable – the author thinks of the doctrine of the reasonable man

Serving of Notices, by whom and who they should be served upon, what should be in the notice, when they notices should be served, time limits, separation of the good from the bad of a party wall Award, Validity of awards – this is spelt out within the act and there is much case law

Methods of Serving

The most recent case law Night v Goulandris on the methods of serving notices, award etc allows any method as long as the server can guarantee the document has been served

Common law liability stands- Louis v Sadiqi 1997 – If the act is not complied with

Easements Arena v Europa

Dates for serving Godwin v Swindon BC

Boundary line is the centre line of a party fence wall

Duty to weather a party wall- Marchant V Capital (1983) – after demolition and also imposition of continual obligations.  Duty to prevent foreseable damage Rees v Skerrett 2001 – also contained within the 1996 Party Wall Act.  Duty to prevent foreseable damage (mitigate one’s loss) – Saunders v Williams 2002

Obligation imposed by party wall awards- Mason v Fulham (1910) do not carry on after the sale of a property

The Jurisdiction of the party Wall Surveyors are covered in much case law – notably Stone V Hastie (1903)

Legal Costs Incurred-Reeves v Blake covers the legal costs incurred and the Party Wall Surveyor’s ability or non-ability to award or adjudicate on them – very interesting this one

Compensation- Crowley v Rushmoore –

Usurping of common law rights by the Party Wall Statute – Louis V Sadiq – LJ Evans

Access is allowed under Section 8 – dont fight it – Davies and Sleep v Wise and Wise – 2006

Section 10 (6) and (7) re refusal or neglect to act effectively with the consequence that the surveyor was empowered to act ex-parte in issuing awards and fees – Patel v Peters

Compensation- Crowley v Rushmoore –

Damages may include nuisance, trespass, harassment, personal injury and financial loss Jones & Lovegrove v Ruth(s)

Usurping of common law rights by the Party Wall Statute – Louis V Sadiq – LJ Evans

Access is allowed under Section 8 – dont fight it – Davies and Sleep v Wise and Wise – 2006

The courts expect people to comply with the act, however if a party fence wall is demolished and rebuilt without serving notices the court will not be punitive where damages are concerned but modest – Rashid v Sharif

The courts expect people to comply with the act, however £20k damages claimed can be reduced to £500 as the court will not act punitively but reasonably as they also so expect owners to be Seef v Ho

Estoppel – this is the principle which precludes a person from asserting something contrary to what is implied by a previous action or statement – Frances Holland School v Wassef 2001 – if Surveyors/owners proceed wrongly but proceed none the less they commit themselves to a course which can not be stopped by stating they should not have gone along the wrongful journey they have. However if the preliminary procedures of the act are not followed (serving of notices, appointment of surveyors etc) and owners to not acquiesce to the procedure there is not jurisdiction to proceed – Rodrigues v Sokal 2008.

Estoppel is very important when determining the jurisdiction of surveyors;  Surveyors who are inadequate will often not realise the importance of following the letter of the law when establishing jurisdiction and consider themselves appointed and proceed with settling a dispute ex parte or with a fellow inadequate third surveyor (often appointed inadequately by a local council officer (see below)); their inadequacy leads to an ignorant attempt to usurp the legislation.  What the other surveyor and their appointed owner(s) must realise is that if they can be seen to consent and join the inadequate surveyor along his journey the doctrine of estoppel can give legitimacy to the inadequate surveyor and remove  rights and jurisdiction.

Easements (support, right to use, weather protection, light, drainage, repair ((servient and dominant)), that old gas flue) and rights of light shall not be interfered with by an award

Party Wall Surveyors are in a statutory role which is quasi judicial – Gyle-Thompson v Wall St (1974)

Boundaries and party fence walls Burns v Morton

Once the process has started the surveyors must be reasonably paid but they don’t deserve a feast when a reasonable snack will suffice – Dust v Greenaway and MacNulty and of course Judge Bailey – however the fees of the adjoining owner’s surveyor (and disbursements) are the responsibility of the Adjoining Owner,  “it may well be that as a matter of convenience the Building Owner pays the Adjoining Owner’s Surveyors fees directly but that is not the legal position. The Claimant therefore must look to the Adjoining Owners who appointed him for payment of his fees and for the reasons stated he is not entitled to claim them from the Defendant.” Van Maanen v West Greenwich Devolpments 2009 (the debt must be assigned)

The act does not cover the fees of lawyers – Blake v Reeves

Kay v Lawrence – security for expenses – expenses are not compensatory damages whereby the Building Owner must  put an adjoining owner in a position they would have been before the damage occurred but a choice to take financial compensation – If the expense is a certainty it can be managed by insurances, and surety bonds or of course by a payment into an escrow account.  However if it is not certain it may not exist.

Road Runner

You have the chance to comply and utilise the Party Wall Act – if you choose not to you can not expect the law to retrospectively support you Roadrunner v Dean

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Avoiding a monopolistic Party Wall Institution

Party Wall Surveyor Bruce Spenser MSc MCIOB

Avoiding a monopolistic Party Wall Institution and Why

Section 20’s purpose is to ensure healthy competition, ethical behavior and fairness. If there was only one Party Wall Institute/organisation fees would escalate (monopoly pricing) as would unsavory and unethical networks, the unnecessary use of professionals such as checking engineers etc. and the monopolistic institute/organisation would select their own third surveyors. What would then exist would be a sluggish, smug, conceited, self-important, pompous, egoistic and circumscribed monopoly which would have no incentive or motivation to serve the public as it would be feasting on the public as it serves itself.

Current known Party Wall Organisation which are not Chartered Institutes

To avoid the abuses of monopolies Bruce fully supports the competition from other organisations ie FPWS, LPWA, PWA, IPWA, PWSA etc – however Bruce considers it is essential that non-chartered professional bodies avoid the possibility of being seen to mislead the public by the use of non-degree or chartered suffixes or overstate the ability, qualifications, experience etc of their members (marketing confusion). See consumer protection regulations and due diligence.

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Methods of Serving Party Wall Notices, Awards etc

Party Wall Surveyor Bruce Spenser MSc MCIOB

Methods of Serving Party Wall Notices, Awards etc

Section 15 of the act describes methods for serving notices, awards etc required under the act. Party Wall Surveyors were trained to pedantically follow the methods of serving and did so – this is probably due to their lack of understanding of the law and how to read and interpret statute. They misinterpreted the English language!

However the most recent case law Night v Goulandris on the methods of serving notices, award etc allows any method as long as the server can guarantee the document has been served and it is recommended reading for all aspirant and serving Party Wall Surveyors and will enlighten surveyors on English Grammar and pedantry.

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