Bulges and other deformations – are caused by:

  • Foundation movement.
  • Owners who have neglected the properties which will lead to rot with wall plates and joist ends.
  • The bombing of London during the Second World War, adjacent bombs can cause ballooning of the external walling.
  • The rear extensions’ side elevation walls were sometimes not sufficiently laterally restrained.
  • The roofs were re-covered with heavier building materials.
  • Structural walls were removed with no consideration.
  • Loss of adhesion of the lime mortar at high level.
  • Removal of cross walls and chimney breasts
  • Inadequate returns of corners and wall
  • Absence of restraints from intermediate floors
  • Leaning walls
  • Bulging walls
  • Separation of internal walls from external walls
  • Inadequate original construction details