FE = Iron

Rust – iron + water + oxygen    →    hydrated iron(III) oxide = FE3+

When FErrous come into contact with oxygen and water they Rust

·         Iron + Carbon = Steel

·         Steel + Concrete = two materials with the same coefficient of expansion = re-inforced concrete = sky scrapers

Protection from rust – Alkalinity, Paint, plastic, Cathode

The principal signs of deterioration and distress within reinforced concrete structures are:

  • Cracks
  • Spalling
  • Pop outs
  • Discolouration
  • Leaks
  • Damp Patches
  • Lim-scale
  • Re-inforcement corrosion
  • Previous repairs
  • Location and condition of joints
  • Condition of bearings

Period properties often used ferrous metals as ties and as structural elements.

Some mid- war properties of non conventional construction were built structurally of Ferrous structural elements :

Your structural/Building survey should advise you where these elements may be, their expected condition and how to ensure their protection.